In the 1890s inventor John P. Holland designed and built prototype submarines. One had 3 steam engines for propulsion, but the heat they generated made them unworkable. Holland thought of a dual propulsion system, with an internal combustion engine for surface use, and batteries and electric motors for submerged use. His Holland reached a respectable 7 mph on the surface, and could remain submerged for several hours. The U.S. Navy bought the Holland, and commissioned it the USS Holland in 1900, and used it for testing and submarine design research for 13 years. His patent is from 1902. The photo shows the Holland on a trial run in 1899.