Inventor Charles Mochet designed a recumbent bicycle, and in 1933 the design was compete enough that he thought it was ready to enter a race against professional cyclists, in the home of professional cycling, France. His rider was Francois Faure, who was not a top cyclist of the day. Riding against professional cyclists, Faure set a new world record that day for distance covered in one hour. The old record was 44.247 km, and the new record set that day was 45.055 km. Later races on recumbents in the same year raised the record to 49.99, and that was set by a 43 year old.
The international governing body of bicycle racing, the same one that had earlier banned metal rims and derailluers, decided within a year that the recumbents should not compete against "real" bikes. They also revoked the records set by the recumbents the previous year. Their ban has stood for 70 years, and essentially remains in place. Don't they realize that with a recumbent, a French cyclist might be able to beat Lance Armstrong? More recumbent related items at Bent Rider Online, Bent Stuff, and Mochet Velocar Racing, and https://www.wisil.recumbents.com/wisil/. Photo from Mochet Velocar Racing, with all the sites listed above maintained by Warren Beauchamp.
An earlier recumbent was patented in 1902.